Oxide-based ion/electron devices for non-volatile memory and reconfigurable nanoelecTRONICS
Research Partners: Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona
Funding Agency / Institution: Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad.
Period: 3 years (1/1/2013-31/12/2015)
Project coordinator: Jordi Suñé
Research team members: Enrique Miranda, David Jiménez, Xavier Cartoixà, Xavier Saura, Rafael Ortega, Julio Blasco, Santi Tous, Alberto Rodríguez-Fernández, Xiaojuan Lian, Shibing Long, Jordi Suñé
Total Funding: 238.860€
Resistive switching in electroformed transition metal oxides has been used to design new electron devices that behave as memristors. These devices, which are based on the combined action of ions (which store the information) and electrons (which carry the current) are important for new non-volatile memory (NVM) technology based on resistive switching (RRAM), for reconfigurable nanoelectronic hardware and for neuromorphic computing architectures. In this project we aim at exploring the main properties of both filamentary and uniform resistive switching devices using simple binary oxides (focusing on HfO2 films and multilayer dielectrics grown by atomic-layer deposition) and complex perovskite oxides (including ferroelectrics), respectively. When dealing with two-terminal devices, we are interested in their application as NVMs, and we focus on two general goals: (i) unveiling the physics of the switching and conduction mechanisms and (ii) exploring and modeling the switching statistics and the reliability issues. Our final goal is to establish a general framework to systematically deal with performance and reliability tradeoffs. However, the most innovative and risky part of our project is related to the exploratory research on three terminal devices. In the literature, most of the research effort has been dedicated to two-terminal devices (memristors) but the development of three-terminal (3T) devices is envisioned as a way to increase device functionality and to improve the interconnection flexibility in neuromorphic circuits, thus enhancing their application potential. Regarding 3T gate controlled devices, our project goals are the conception and proof of concept of three alternative devices: (iii) gate controlled switching transistors based on filamentary resistive switching in HfO2 ; (iv) filamentary-based memistors and (v) complex-oxide based memistors based on bulk resistive switching. The project is ambitious and multidisciplinar (it combines challenging material and device engineering problems) and strategically combines low-risk research aimed at fostering the industrial development of RRAM and higher risk/higher innovation activities aimed at exploring the frontiers of the field.
E. Miranda, D. Jimenez, J. Suñe, S. Monaghan, P.K.Hurley, Nonhomogeneous spatial distribution of filamentary leakage current paths in circular area Pt/HfO2/Pt capacitors, J Vac Sci Technol B31, 01A017 (2013)
X. Saura, J. Suñé, S. Monaghan, P.K. Hurley, E. Miranda, Analysis of the breakdown spot spatial distribution in Pt/HfO2/Pt capacitors using nearest neighbor statistics, J Appl Phys 114, 154112 (2013)
X. Saura, D. Moix, J. Suñé, P.K. Hurley, E. Miranda, Direct observation of the generation of breakdown spots in MIM structures under constant voltage stress, Mic Rel 53, 1257-1260 (2013)
E.Y. Wu and J, Suñé, Generalized hydrogen release-reaction model for the breakdown of modern gate dielectrics, Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 114, 014103 (2013)
[S. Long, X. Lian, C. Cagli, X. Cartoixà, R. Rurali, E. Miranda, D. Jiménez, L. Perniola, M. Liu and J. Suñé, Quantum-size effects in hafnium-oxide resistive switching, Applied Physics Letters, vol. 102, 183505 (2013)
S. Long, L. Perniola, C. Cagli, J. Buckley, X. Lian, E. Miranda, F. Pan, M. Liu and Jordi Suñé, Voltage and Power-Controlled Regimes in the Progressive Unipolar RESET Transition of HfO2-Based RRAM, Scientific Reports, vol.3 , 2929 (2013)
M. A. Villena, F. Jiménez-Molinos, J. B. Roldán, J.Suñé, S. Long, X. Lian, F. Gámiz, and M. Liu, An in-depth simulation study of thermal reset transitions in resistive switching memories, Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 114, 144505 (2013).
S. Long, X. Lian, T. Ye, C. Cagli, L. Perniola, E. Miranda, M. Liu and J. Suñé , Cycle-to-Cycle Intrinsic RESET Statistics in HfO2-Based Unipolar RRAM Devices, IEEE Electr. Dev. Lett. vol. 34, 623-625 (2013)
X. Yang, S. Long, K. Zhang, X. Liu, X. Lian, Q. Liu, H. Lv, M. Wang, H. Xie, H. Sun, P. Sun, J. Suñé, and M. Liu, Investigation on the RESET switching mechanism of bipolar Cu/HfO2/Pt RRAM devices with a statistical methodology, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. vol. 46, 245107 (2013).
S. Long, X. Lian, C. Cagli, L. Perniola, E. Miranda, M. Liu, and J. Suñé, A Model for the Set Statistics of RRAM Inspired in the Percolation Model of Oxide Breakdown, IEEE Electron Dev. Lett., vol. 34, pp. 999-1001 (2013)
E. Miranda, A. Mehonic, J. Suñé, A.J. Kenyon, Multi-channel conduction in redox-based switches modelled using quantum point contact theory, Appl Phys Lett 103, 222904 (2013)
J. Blasco, N. Ghenzi, J. Suñé, P. Levy, E. Miranda, Modeling of the Hysteretic I-V Characteristics of TiO2-Based Resistive Switches Using the Generalized Diode Equation, IEEE Electron Dev Lett 35, 390 (2014)
D. Jiménez, E. Miranda, A. Tsurumaki-Fukuchi, H. Yamada, J. Suñé, and A. Sawa, Multilevel recording in Bi-deficient Pt/BFO/SRO heterostructures based on ferroelectric resistive switching targeting high-density information storage in nonvolatile memories, Applied Physics Letters, 103, 263502 (2013).
X. Saura, S. Monaghan, J. Suñé, P. K. Hurley, E. Miranda, Failure analysis of MIM and MIS sructures using point-to-event distance and angular probability distributions, IEEE Transaction on Materials and Devices Reliability, 14 (2014) 1080-1090
E. Miranda, M. Riccio, G. De Falco, J. Suñé, A. Irace, Assessing the spatial correlation and conduction state of breakdown spot patterns in Pt/HfO2/Pt structures using transient infrared thermography, Journal of Applied Physics 115 (2014) 174502
X. Saura, M. Riccio, G. De Falco, J. Suñé, A. Irace, E. Miranda, Study on the spatial generation of breakdown spots in MIM capacitors with different aspect ratios, (Invited paper) Facta Universitatis 28, 177 (2015)
M. Zhang, S. Long, G. Wang, X. Xu, Y. Li, Q. Liu, H. Lv, X. Lian, E. Miranda, J. Suñé, and M. Liu, Set statistics in conductive bridge random access memory device with Cu/HfO2/Pt structure, Applied Physics Letters 105, 193501 (2014).
M. Zhang, S. Long, G. Wang, R. Liu, X. Xu, Y. Li, D. Xu, Q. Liu, H. Lv, E. Miranda, J. Suñé, M. Liu, Statistical characteristics of reset switching in Cu/HfO2/Pt resistive switching memory, Nanoscale Research Letters vol. 9, p. 694 (2014).
M. A. Villena, M. B. González, F. Jiménez-Molinos, F. Campabadal, J. B. Roldán, J. Suñé, E. Romera, and E. Miranda, Simulation of thermal reset transitions in resistive switching memories including quantum effects, Journal of Applied Physics 115, 214504 (2014).
M. A. Villena, J. B. Roldán, F. Jimenez-Molinos, J. Suñé, S. Long, E. Miranda and M. Liu, A comprehensive analysis on progressive reset transitions in RRAMs, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47 (2014) 205102
P. Calka, M. Sowinska,T. Bertaud, D. Walczyk, J. Dabrowski, P. Zaumseil, C. Walczyk, A. Gloskovskii, X. Cartoixà, J. Suñé, and T. Schroeder, Engineering of the Chemical Reactivity of the Ti/HfO2 Interface for RRAM: Experiment and Theory, ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, vol. 6, 5056−5060 (2014).
X. Lian, X. Cartoixà, E. Miranda, L. Perniola, R. Rurali, S. Long, M. Liu, and J. Suñé, Multi-scale quantum point contact model for filamentary conduction in resistive random access memories devices, Journal of Applied Physics vol. 115, 244507 (2014).
J. Blasco, N. Ghenzi, J. Suñé, P. Levy, E. Miranda, Modeling of the hysteretic I-V characteristics of TiO2-based resistive switches using the generalized diode equation, IEEE Electron Dev Letters, 35 (2014) 390-392
J.Blasco, N. Ghenzi, J. Suñé, P. Levy, E. Miranda (Introductory Invited Paper), Equivalent circuit modeling of the bistable conduction characteristics in electroformed thin dielectric films, Microelectronics Reliability 55 (2015) 1–14
J. Blasco, P. Jancovic, K. Frohlich, J. Suñé, E. Miranda, Modeling of the switching I-V characteristics in ultrathin (5 nm) atomic layer deposited HfO2 layers using the logistic hysteron, Journal of Vac. Sci. Technol., 33 (2014) 01A102 - 01A102-6
J. Blasco, H. Castán, H. García, S. Dueñas, J. Suñé, M. Kemell, K. Kukli, M. Ritala, M. Leskelä, E. Miranda, Single-parameter model for the post-breakdown conduction characteristics of HoTiOx-based MIM capacitors, Microelectronics Reliability 54 (2014) 1707–1711
D. Walczyk, C. Zambelli, A. Grossi, E. Miranda, P. Olivo, V. Stikanov, A. Feriani, J. Suñé, G. Schoof, R. Kraemer, B. Tillack, A. Fox, T. Schroeder, C. Wenger, and C. Walczyk, Impact of inter-cell and intra-cell variability on forming and switching parameters in RRAM arrays, IEEE Trans Electron Dev 62, 2502-2509 (2015)
E. Miranda, A. Mehonic, J. Blasco, J. Suñé, and A.J. Kenyon, Multiple Diode-Like Conduction in Resistive Switching SiOx-based MIM Devices, IEEE Transaction on Nanotechnology, 14 ( 2015) 15 - 17
E. Miranda, D. Jiménez, A. Tsurumaki-Fukuchi, J. Blasco, H. Yamada, J. Suñé, A. Sawa, Modeling of hysteretic Schottky diode-like conduction in Pt/BiFeO3/SrRuO3 switches, Applied Physics Letters 105, 082904 (2014).
Y. Li, S. Long, Yang Liu, Chen Hu, Jiao Teng, Qi Liu, Hangbing Lv, Jordi Suñé, and Ming Liu. Conductance quantization in resistive random access memory. Nanoscale Research Letters, 10, 420 (2015).
M. Zhang, M. Wang, G. Wang, S. Long, Z. Yu, Y. Li, D. Xu, H. Lv, Q. Liu, E. Miranda, J. Suñé, M. Liu. A physical model for the statistics of the set switching time of resistive RAM measured with the width-adjusting pulse operation method. IEEE Electron Device Letters, 36(12), 1303-1306 (2015).
G. Wang, S. Long, Z. Yu, M. Zhang, T. Ye, Y. Li, D. Xu, H. Lv, Qi Liu, M. Wang, X. Xu, H. Liu, B. Yang, J. Suñé, and M. Liu. Improving resistance uniformity and endurance of resistive switching memory by accurately controlling the stress time of pulse program operation. Applied Physics Letters, 106(9), 092103 (2015).
A. Rodríguez, M.B. Gonzalez, F. Campabadal, J. Suñé, E. Miranda, Electrical characterization of multiple leakage current paths in HfO2/Al2O3-based nanolaminates, Microelectronics Reliability, 55, 2015, 1442-1445
A. Rodriguez, M.B. Gonzalez, F. Campabadal, J. Suñé, E. Miranda, Breakdown time statistics of successive failure events in constant voltage-stressed Al2O3/HfO2 nanolaminates, Microelectronic Engineering, 147, 2015, 85-88
A. Rodriguez, M.B. Gonzalez, F. Campabadal, J. Suñé, E. Miranda, Temperature and polarity dependence of the switching behavior of Ni/HfO2-based RRAM devices, Microelectronic Engineering, 147, 2015, 75-78
Miranda, E.; Hudec, B.; Sune, J.; Frohlich, K., Model for the Current–Voltage Characteristic of Resistive Switches Based on Recursive Hysteretic Operators, IEEE Electron Device Letters, 2015, 36, 944 - 946
E. Miranda, Compact Model for the Major and Minor Hysteretic I–V Loops in Nonlinear Memristive Devices, IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology 14, 787 (2015)
P. Lorenzi, R. Rao, F. Irrera, J. Suñé, and E. Miranda, A thorough investigation of the progressive reset dynamics in HfO2-based resistive switching structures, Applied Physics Letters 107, 113507 (2015)